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1. The use of Enteral Nutrition vs. Parenteral Nutrition (EN vs. PN)

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2. Early Vs Delayed Nutrient Intake

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3. Nutritional Prescription (dose) of Enteral Nutrition

3.1 Indirect Calorimetry vs. Predictive

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3.2 Achieving Target Dose of Enteral Nutrition

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3.3 Intentional Underfeeding

3.3a Trophic Feeds vs Full Feeds

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3.3b Hypocaloric Enteral Nutrition

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4. Composition of Enteral Nutrition

4.1 Immune Enhancing Diets

4.1a Diets Supplemented with Arginine and Select Other Nutrients

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4.1b i) Fish Oils, Borage Oils and Antioxidants

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4.1b ii) Fish oils supplementation

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4.1c Glutamine

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4.1d Ornithine KetoGlutarate (OKG)

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4.2 Carbohydrate/Fat

4.2a High fat/Low Carbohydrate

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4.2b Low fat/High Carbohydrate

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4.2c High Protein vs. Low Protein

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4.3 Protein vs. Peptides

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4.4 pH

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4.5 Fibre

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5. Strategies to Optimize Delivery and Minimize risk of Enteral Nutrition

5.1 Feeding Protocols

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5.2 Motility Agents

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5.3 Small Bowel vs. Gastric

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5.4 Body position

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5.5 Threshold of Gastric Residual Volumes

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5.6 Discarding Gastric Residual Volumes

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6. Enteral Nutrition: Other

6.1 Closed vs. Open system

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6.2 Probiotics

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6.3 Continuous vs. other methods of administration

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6.4 Gastrostomy vs. Nasogastric feeding

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6.5 Other Formulas

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7. Enteral Nutrition plus Parenteral Nutrition

7.1 Combination Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

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7.2 Early vs Delayed Supplemental PN

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8. Parenteral Nutrition vs. Standard care

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9. Composition of Parenteral Nutrition

9.1 Branched Chain Amino Acids

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9.2 Type of lipids

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9.3 Zinc (alone or in combination)

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9.4a Parenteral Glutamine Supplementation

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9.4b Combined Parenteral and Enteral Glutamine Supplementation

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9.4c Enteral Glutamine vs Parenteral Dipeptide Supplementation

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10. Strategies to Optimize Parenteral Nutrition

10.1 Dose of Parenteral Nutrition

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10.2 Use of lipids

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10.3 Mode of lipid delivery

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10.4a Optimal glucose control: Insulin therapy

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10.4b Optimal glucose control: Carbohydrate restricted formula and insulin therapy

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11. Supplemental Antioxidants

11.1 Combined Vitamins and Trace Elements

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11.2 Parenteral Selenium (alone or in combination)

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11.3 Vitamin C Supplementation

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12. Vitamin D

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